Nitrotoluenes in freshwater and marine water
Toxicant default guideline values for protecting aquatic ecosystems
Extracted from Section 8.3.7 ‘Detailed descriptions of chemicals’ of the ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000) guidelines.
The default guideline values (previously known as ‘trigger values’) and associated information in this technical brief should be used in accordance with the detailed guidance provided in the Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Water Quality.
Description of chemical
Dinitrotoluenes are used in the production of explosives, in the manufacture and formulation of urethane polymers and surface coatings, and in the preparation of dyes and organic chemicals (USEPA 1980b, Verscheuren 1983). They may enter the aquatic environment through discharges into waters by manufacturing industries that produce dyes, isocyanides, polyurethanes and munitions (CCREM 1987).
|Chemical and CAS no.||NB 98-95-3||1,2-DNB 528-29-0||1,3-DNB 99-65-0||1,4-DNB 100-25-4||1,3,5-TNB 99-35-4||1-MeO-2-NB 91-23-6||1-MeO-4-NB 100-17-4|
|1800-156,000 (n=6)||600 (n=1)||1440-16,800 (n=4)||603-1700 (n=2)||380-1100 (n=4)||169,000-216,000 (n=1)||–|
|Chronic||38,300 (n=1)||–||500 (69d) (n=1)||–||80 (71d) (n=2)||–||–|
|27,000-33 000 (n=2)||–||27 ,400-53,000 (n=1)||–||2700-29,800 (n=1)||–||–|
|Chronic||2600 (21d:n=1)||–||550 (16d) (n=1)||–||470 (21d) (n=1)||13,000 (21d: n=1)||3200 (21d) (n=1)|
|Other Invertebrates||143 000 (n=3)||–||–||4240-7350 (n=2)||960 (NOEC) (n=1)||–||–|
|Algae||18 000-23 800 (n=2)||9420 (n=1)||260-14 300 (n=1)||–||–||42,000-100,000 (n=1)||31,000 (n=1)|
|TV Fresh Mod reliability||550 (SD)||-||-||-||-|
|TV Fresh Low reliability||-||0.6 (AF)||13 (AF; c)||0.6 (AF)||4 (AF;c)||130 (AF)||16 (AF; c)|
|TV Marine Low reliability||550 f||0.6 f||13 f||0.6 f||4 f||130 f||16 f|
AF = assessment factor used; SD = statistical distribution used, 95% protection; High, Mod & Low refer to the reliability of TVs; f = freshwater TV adopted; c = AF of 20 applied to chronic data from three trophic levels (1,3-DNB and 1,3,5-TNB) or 200 applied to lowest of few chronic data (1-MeO-4-NB).
|Che mical and CAS no.||1Cl-2NB 88-73-3||1Cl-3NB 121-73-3||1Cl-4NB 100-00-5||1Cl-2,4-DNB 97-00-7||1,2DCl-3NB 3209-22-1||1,3DCl-5NB 618-62-2||1,4DCl-2NB 89-61-2||2,4DCl-2NB 611-06-3||1,2,4,5TeCl-3NB 117-18-0||1,5-DCl-2,4DNB 3698-83-7||1,3,5-TCl-2,4DNB 6284-83-9||1F-4NB 350-46-9|
|Fish||–||1200-18,000 (n=2)||–||–||–||–||–||–||370-1400 (n=3)||26-74 (n=5)||222 (n=1)||28,400 (n=1)|
|24,000 (n=1)||20,000 (n=1)||6700 (n=1)||800 (n=1)||4200 (n=1)||7500 (n=1)||11,000 (n=1)||4200 (n=1)||270-1063 (n=2)||–||–||–|
|chronic||3000 (21d: n=1)||–||190 (21d) (n=1)||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Other invert.||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||569-2337 (n=1)||–||–||–|
|–Algae||34,000-75,000 (n=1)||1900 (n=1)||4900-16,000 (n=2)||800 (n=1)||2900 (n=1)||600 (n=1)||2100 (n=1)||2400 (n=1)||–||–||–||–|
|Fresh TV Low reliab.||15 c||12||1 c||4 c||15 c||3 c||10 c||12 c||0.3||0.03||0.2||28|
|Marine TV Low reliab.||15 f||12 f||1 f||4 f||15 f||3 f||10 f||12 f||0.3 f||0.03 f||0.2 f||28 f|
Low = Low reliability TV; f = freshwater TV adopted; c = factor of 200 on lowest of limited chronic data.
|Chemical and CAS no.||2-NT 88-72-2||3-NT 99-08-1||4-NT 99-99-0||2,3-DNT 602-01-7||2,4-DNT 121-14-2||2,6-DNT 606-20-2||2,4,6-TNT 118-96-7||1,2-DMe-3NB 83-41-0||1,2-DMe-4NB 99-51-4||4-Cl-3NT 89-60-1|
|Freshwater fish||37,100-38,000 (n=1)||30,000-32,500 (n=1)||50,000 (n=1)||330-1900 (n=2)||6300-32 8001
|11,000 (n=1)||7500 (n=1)||12,100-19,000 (n=1)||660 (n=1)||26,200-35,000 (n=1)||–||980-11,9002 (n-2)||4200 (n=1)||16,000 (n=1)||–|
|Chronic||–||–||–||–||20 (n=1)||60 (21 d) (n=1)||–||–||–||300 (21d) (n=1)|
|Algae||48,000 (n=1)||14,000 (n=1)||–||–||80-6300 (n=8)||11,000-22,000 (n=2)||–||–||–||11,000-23,000 (n=1)|
|TV Fresh Mod reliab.||-||-||-||-||16 SD||-||140 SD||–||–||–|
|TV Fresh AF Low reliab.||110||75||120||0.3||–||0.3 c||-||4||16||1.5 c|
|TV Marine AF Low reliab.||110 f||75 f||120 f||0.4||16 f||0.3 f||140 f||4 f||16 f||1.5 f|
AF method used except where marked ‘SD’ ; SD = statistical distribution method used, Mod reliability, 95% protection for 2,4,6-TNT & 99% for 2,4-DNT, to protect D. magna from chronic toxicity; 1. =2-4-DNT; one fish, 35-d NOEC (growth), 770-1400 µg/L; 2. = 2,4,6-TNT: other invertebrates, four species, 48 h, 4900-24,800 µg/L (insects, annelids, rotifers and platyhelminthes); f/m = freshwater/marine TV adopted; c = AF of 200 applied to lowest of few chronic data.
There are six possible isomers of dinitrotoluene, however, aquatic toxicity data were available only for 2,3-dinitrotoluene and 2,6-dinitrotoluene. USEPA (1980b) reported that 2,3-dinitrotoluene is two orders of magnitude more toxic to freshwater invertebrates and fish than is 2,3-dinitrotoluene. No measured bioaccumulation data were available for dinitrotoluene. The current analytical PQL for 2,4-nitrotoluene is 1 µg/L and for 2,4,6-TNT it is 2 µg/L (NSW EPA 2000).
Freshwater toxicity data for nine nitrotoluenes, including some methyl- and chloro-substituted compounds, are listed in Table 8.3.17.
Low reliability trigger values were calculated for most nitrotoluenes except for 2,4-DNT and 2,4,6-TNT (moderate reliability). Data and trigger values are provided in Table 8.3.17. As the 95% protection level trigger value (67 µg/L) for 2,4-DNT is above the D. magna chronic NOEC (20 µg/L), and it is recommended that the 99% protection level (16 µg/L) is used for slightly to moderately disturbed ecosystems.
Marine aquatic toxicity data were only available for one nitrotoluene, 2,3-dinitrotoluene but only a low reliability marine trigger value (0.4 µg/L) was derived. For all other nitrotoluenes, adoption of the freshwater guidelines as low reliability marine trigger values is suggested.
ANZECC & ARMCANZ 2000. Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Water Quality, Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council and Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand, Canberra.
CCREM 1987. Canadian water quality guidelines. Canadian Council of Resource and Environment Ministers, Ontario.
NSW EPA 2000. Analytical Chemistry Section, Table of Trigger Values 20 March 2000, LD33/11, Lidcombe, NSW.
USEPA 1980b. Ambient water quality criteria for dinitrotoluene. Criteria and Standards Division, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC. EPA-440/5-80-045.
Verscheuren K 1983. Handbook of environmental data on organic chemicals, 2nd edn, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co, New York.