Chlorinated naphthalenes in freshwater and marine water
Toxicant default guideline values for protecting aquatic ecosystems
Extracted from Section 8.3.7 ‘Detailed descriptions of chemicals’ of the ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000) guidelines.
The default guideline values (previously known as ‘trigger values’) and associated information in this technical brief should be used in accordance with the detailed guidance provided in the Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Water Quality.
Description of chemical
Chlorinated naphthalenes consist of two fused aromatic carbon rings with any or all of the eight hydrogen atoms replaced with chlorine. The commercial products are usually mixtures with various degrees of chlorination. Mixtures of trichloronaphthalenes and tetrachloronaphthalenes comprise the bulk of commercial use as paper impregnates in automobile capacitors. Other mixtures are used as oil additives for engine cleaning and in fabric dying (USEPA 1980f).
Limited data exist on the toxicity of these compounds for aquatic organisms. The available data indicate that acute toxicity occurs at concentrations of 1600 µg/L for Daphnia magna exposed to 1-chloronaphthalene (USEPA 1980f). Acute toxicity to saltwater aquatic life occurred at concentrations as low as 7.5 µg/L (USEPA 1986). No data are available concerning the chronic toxicity of chlorinated naphthalenes (USEPA 1986).
1-Chloronaphthalene (CAS 90-13-1)
Freshwater fish: one species, Lepomis macrochirus, 96-h LC50, 2300 µg/L.
Freshwater crustacean: one species, D. magna, 48-h-LC50, 1600 µg/L.
Marine fish: one species, Cyprinodon variegatus, 48-96-h LC50, 690-2500 µg/L.
There were insufficient data to derive a reliable trigger value for 1-chloronaphthalene. Hence low reliability trigger values of 1.6 µg/L (freshwater) and 0.7 µg/L (marine) were calculated using an assessment factor (AF) of 1000. These should be used as indicative interim working levels only.
|Toxicant and CAS no.||CB (108-90-7)||1,2-DCB (95-50-1)||1,3-DCB (541-73-1)||1,4-DCB (106-46-7)||1,2,3-TCB (87-61-6)||1,2,4-TCB||1,3,5-TCB|
|Fish 1-4 d||660-45,500 (n=7)||1580-76,300 (n=5)||5000-9120 (n=2)||1180-35,400 (n=6)||279-3100 (n=3)||1100-6300 (n=6)||–|
|Crustaceans 1-2 d||585-86,000 (n=2)||740-2400 (n=1)||1300-7400a (n=1)||700-11,000 (n=1)||1163-2180 (n=1)||1700-50,000 (n=2)||–|
|Other inverts. 2-4 d||–||12 000
|Algae or ciliate
1-5 d EC50
|12,500-33,000 (n=1)||2200-76,100 (n=2)||19,000-114,000 (n=2)||1600-96,700 (n=4)||900 (n=1)||8400 (n=2)||9070 (n=1)|
|TV Fresh (Mod reliab.)||–||160 (SD)||260 (SD)||60 (SD)||3 (SD)||85 (SD)||–|
|TV Fresh (Low reliab.)||55 (Q;SD)||–||–||–||–||–||8 (Q; SD)|
|Fish||5820-10,000 (n=1)||4200-9700 (n=4)||7800-8000 (n=1)||7400 (n=1)||300-21,000 (n=2)||–|
|Crustaceans||16,300-41,000 (n=2)||1900-10,300 n=3)||2850 (n=1)||740-69,000 (n=4)||561 (n=1)||540-2600 (n=3)||–|
|Other inverts||–||–||–||–||–||890-930 (n=2)||100 (n=1)|
|Algae||38,000-220,000 (n=1)||7600-44,200 (n=2)||5280 (n=1)||54,800 (n=1)||–||8750 (n=1)||–|
|TV Marine (Mod reliab.)||-||–||–||-||-||20 (SD)||–|
|TV Marine (Low reliab.)||55 (f)||160 (f)||260 (f)||60 (f)||3 (f)||–||8 (f)|
a = 1 x 48-h LC50 of 28,000 µg/L; AF = AF method used; SD = statistical distribution method, 95% protection for mono- and di-CBs and 99% for ≥ tri-CBs (potential bioaccumulators); High, Mod, Low refers to reliability of TV; Q = QSAR-derived; f = freshwater TV adopted; c = AF of 20 applied to lowest of 3 chronic; d = AF of 20 applied to P. pelagicus chronic (Australian).
|Toxicant and CAS no.||1,2,3,4-TeCB (634-66-2)||1,2,3,5-TeCB (634-90-2)||1,2,4,5-TeCB (95-94-3)||PeCB (608-93-5)||HCB (118-74-1)|
|Algae||–||–||–||460-9600* (n=2)||14 (n=1)|
|Crustaceans||180–1080 (n=2)||860-1730 (n=1)||–||300-5300* (n=2)||Chronic (n=1)|
|Fish||245-1100 (n=3)||830 (n=1)||1600-10,000* (n=3)||135-250 n=2||12,000-22,000* (n=4)|
|TV Fresh µg/L Low||2 (Q; SD)||3 (Q; SD)||5 (Q; SD)||1.5 (Q; SD)||0.05 (Q; SD)|
|Algae||–||830 (n=1)||7100* (n=1)||2230* (n=1)||–|
|Crustaceans||410 (n=1)||340 (n=1)||1480* (n=1)||87-160 (n=2)||–|
|Fish||–||3700 (n=1)||330-900* (n-1)||80-800 (n=1)||–|
|TV Marine µg/L Low||2 (f)||3 (f)||5 (f)||1.5 (f)||0.05 (f)|
* Exceeds solubility by >2 x ; (*) upper figures exceed solubility; AF = AF method used; SD = statistical distribution method, 99% protection recommended for slightly-moderately disturbed systems; Low = low reliability TV for slightly-moderately disturbed systems; Q = QSAR-derived; f = adopted from freshwater.
ANZECC & ARMCANZ 2000. Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Water Quality, Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council and Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand, Canberra.
USEPA 1980f. Ambient water quality criteria for chlorinated naphthalenes. Criteria and Standards Division, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC.
USEPA 1986. Quality criteria for water. US Department of Commerce, National Technical Information Service, US Environmental Protection Agency, Springfield, Virginia. PB87-226759, EPA 440/5 86-001.