3,4-Dichloroaniline in freshwater and marine water

​​​Toxicant default guideline values for protecting aquatic ecosystems

October 2000

Extracted from Section 8.3.7 ‘Detailed descriptions of chemicals’ of the ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000) guidelines.

The default guideline values (previously known as ‘trigger values’) and associated information in this technical brief should be used in accordance with the detailed guidance provided in the Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Water Quality.

Description of chemical

3,4-Dichloroaniline (CAS 95-76-1)

Aquatic toxicology

Freshwater fish: five species, 96-h LC50, 1800-9000 µg/L. Oncorhynchus mykiss was most sensitive. A chronic NOEC (18 d, mortality) of 20 µg/L was reported.

Freshwater crustaceans: four species, 48-h LC50 or EC50 (immobilisation) 100-17 400. Gammarus pulex was least sensitive. Chronic NOECs for Daphnia magna (15-21 d, reproduction, 5-10 µg/L, giving an ACR of 52), and Gammarus pulex (25-d, growth of 80 µg/L).

Freshwater insects: one species, 96-h LC50 varied widely for Chironomus riparius from 4–74,000µg/L. A chronic NOEC (12 d, growth) of 760 µg/L was reported.

Freshwater molluscs: one species, 96-h LC50 to Dreissena polymorpha of 22,000 µg/L.

Freshwater algae: three species, 48-96 EC50 (growth or biomass) of 2200-6800 µg/L.

Marine fish: four species, 48-96 h LC50, 2400-8500 µg/L.

Marine crustaceans: five species, 96-h LC50, 1220-6020 µg/L.

Marine mollusc: one species, Mytilus edulis, 96-h LC50, 9500 µg/L.

Marine annelid: one species, 96-h LC50, 4000-15,000 µg/L.

Australian and New Zealand data

3,4-Dichloroaniline is commonly used as a reference toxicant. Some local data have been reported for water fleas Daphnia magna (48-h EC50 519 µg/L; 15-d NOEC for reproduction 10 µg/L) and Moina australiensis (48-h EC50 236 µg/L; 9-d LOEC for reproduction 5 µg/L).


A freshwater high reliability trigger value of 3 µg/L was derived for 3,4-DCA using the statistical distribution method with 95% protection. This is below the current practical quantitation limit (PQL) (10 µg/L).

A marine moderate reliability trigger value of 150 µg/L was derived using the statistical distribution method with 95% protection and the default acute-to-chronic ratio (ACR).


ANZECC & ARMCANZ 2000. Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Water Quality, Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council and Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand, Canberra.